wood FinishingWood finishing starts with sanding either by hand, usually employing a sanding block or power smoother, scraping, or planing. Imperfections or nail holes on the surface could also be filled using wood putty or pores could also be filled using wood filler. Often, the wood's colour is modified by staining, bleaching, or any of variety of alternative techniques.
Once the wood surface is prepared and stained, the end is applied. it always consists of many coats of wax, shellac, drying oil, lacquer, varnish, or paint, and every coat is usually followed by sanding.
Finally, the surface could also be polished or buffed using wire wool, pumice, rotten stone or alternative materials, counting on the shine desired. Often, a final coat of wax is applied over the finish to feature a degree of protection.
French polishing could be a finishing method of applying many thin coats of shellac employing a rubbing pad, yielding a very fine glossy finish.
Ammonia fuming could be a ancient method for darkening and enriching the colour of oak. Ammonia fumes react with the natural tannins in the wood and cause it to amendment colors. The ensuing product is glorious as "fumed oak".
Types of finishesThere are three major kinds of finish
1 ) Evaporative
2 ) Reactive
3 ) Coalescing
Wax is an physical change end as a result of it's dissolved in turpentine or crude oil distillates to create a soft paste. when these distillates evaporate, a wax residue is left over.
Reactive finishes could use solvents such as white spirits and dissolver as a base. Varnishes, linseed oil and tung oil are reactive finishes, which means they amendment with chemicals once they cure, not like physical change finishes. This natural action is usually a polymerisation, and therefore the resultant material is a smaller amount promptly dissolved in solvents .
Tung oil and flaxseed oil ar reactive finishes that cure by reacting with O, however don't kind a movie.
Water based mostly finishes typically represent the coalescing class.
Comparison of various clear finishesClear endes ar meant to create wood look smart and meet the strain to be placed on the finish. selecting a transparent end for wood involves trade-offs between look, protection, durability, safety, needs for cleansing, and easy application. the subsequent table compares the characteristics of various clear finishes. 'Rubbing qualities' indicates the benefit with which a finish will be manipulated to deliver the finish desired. Shellac ought to be thought of in 2 completely different ways in which. it's used as a end and as the simplest way to control the wood's ability to soak up alternative finishes by cutting it with ethyl alcohol. The alcohol evaporates soon to yield a end that's fully safe however shellac can attach itself to just about any surface, even glass, and just about the other end will be used over it.
Hangline approachIn the hangline approach, wood things being finished ar decorated by carriers or hangers that ar connected to a conveyor system that moves the things overhead or on top of the ground house. The conveyor itself will be ceiling mounted, wall mounted or supported by floor mounts. a straightforward overhead conveyor system will be designed to maneuver wood product through many wood finishing processes in an exceedingly continuous loop. The hangline approach to machine-controlled wood finishing conjointly permits the choice of moving things up to hotter air at the ceiling level to hurry up drying method.
In this towing line technique, mobile carts move giant article of furniture through varied finishing stages on a conveyor system.